It depends on the brake.
Muzzle brakes can be quite effective in reducing recoil, particularly if they are designed well. However, there is no definitive answer to this question as the amount of recoil reduction will vary depending on the specific brake and the firearm it is attached to. Some muzzle brakes are more effective than others, and some firearms are more sensitive to recoil than others.
This differs depending on the type and design of the brake, and the cartridge for which the rifle is chambered. A muzzle brake is most useful and effective on calibers ranging from the centerfire 22’s (5.56mm, .222, .223, etc.) up to the sub-30 calibers (.243, 25–06, 6.5mm, etc.).
Also, remember that some designs are not very effective and you need to do a little research to find the most effective one.
That said, a well-designed muzzle brake can often decrease recoil by 50% or more. And for those who are really sensitive to recoil, that reduction in recoil can make all the difference between being able to enjoy target shooting or not.
Here are some tests that will show it clearly:
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A muzzle brake can reduce recoil by up to 50% depending on the caliber and type of brake. For example, a muzzle brake for a .308 rifle can reduce recoil by up to 50%, while a muzzle brake for a 9mm pistol can barely make a difference.
Muzzle brakes work by redirecting the expanding gases created when the bullet is fired away from the shooter. This reduces the amount of force that is applied to the shooter’s shoulder, allowing them to be more accurate with follow-up shots. That’s a big help — especially for those who are shooting a gun with a shoulder or other recoil problem.
Most are vented in a way that allows the gas to flow through the sides. The propellant exhaust gases will be directed out of the muzzle when the weapon is fired. A shot with less kickback as a result. Furthermore, because shooters are not as exhausted from recoil during their shooting sessions, they can fire more rounds accurately with the help of the muzzle brake.
Check out this video about the difference the number of holes makes:
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The muzzle brake can reduce recoil by about 50%.
Muzzle brakes work by redirecting the expanding gases from the bullet firing out of the barrel in such a way as to counteract the recoil force. This redirected gas creates a forward force that opposes the backward motion of the gun, thereby reducing recoil.